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The author considers the relationship between liturgy and popular religion in the wake of the Roman Catholic Church's renewal (1988) of the ancient Mozarabic rite, one of three ancient Latin liturgies, dating to the earliest centuries of the Church, that are practiced today. The author studies the Spanish Mozarabic rite, as practiced today at Santa Eulalia Church in Toledo, Spain. He concludes that "Mozarahs and their rite reflect the liturgy and spirituality of the earliest Hispanics," and thus "are an apt source for examining the roots of much contemporary Hispanic spirituality, especially as expressed in popular religion.