Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


School of Education


International and Multicultural Education


International & Multicultural Education EdD

First Advisor

Melissa Ann Canlas

Second Advisor

David Donahue

Third Advisor

Emma Fuentes


The Pew Research Center’s analysis of United States census data depicts and increasing number of individuals identifying as more than one race. From 2010 to 2020, the population had nearly doubled to 13.5 million. This is particularly evident in states with large populations of Asian American communities such as California, where nearly two million people identify as multiracial and people identifying as both White and Asian making up the largest portion of the 61% increase the state saw since 2010 (Henderson, 2022). Despite claims that an increase in multiracial individuals signifies an end of racism, multiracial children, navigating complex ethnic and racial experiences face racial oppression, discrimination, and bias to this day (Chang, 2015; Harris, 2016; Nayani, 2020; Rockquemore & Laszloffy, 2005; Rockquemore et al., 2009). Using qualitative interviews and parenting circles (focus groups) this study explored the relationship between parent agency and their children’s understanding of race, racism, and identity. The population sample of this study was families with multiracial children of Asian descent, a population that is underrepresented in research despite its significant growth. A total of nine families (11 individual parents) participated in the study. The focus on multiracial families with Asian heritage helps bridge the gap in representation in the areas of critical race theory, ethnic and racial socialization, and racial justice education, offering insights into their unique experiences. Results from interviews and focus groups highlighted three areas of focus for multiracial families with Asian heritage: ethnic identity development, racial identity development, and navigating teaching about racism and antiracism. Findings suggest parents teach and learn from their children about race, racism, and identity through the following three strategies: (1) learning to heal, (2) learning and teaching to nurture identity development, and (3) creating a family culture of antiracism. The results from this study emphasize a need to expand research on multiracial families beyond the Black and white racial binary by demonstrating the nuances of ethnic identity, racial identity, and antiracism development of Asian American parents and multiracial families with Asian American heritage. Recommendations for parents included engaging in formal learning of ethnic studies and critical race theory to empower themselves and their families in addressing intergenerational trauma. Recommendations for researchers included further research to explore the impact of parental agency in teaching about identity and antiracism, through a triangulated study that includes parents’ and children's insights and perspectives.