Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


School of Education


Learning and Instruction


Learning & Instruction EdD

First Advisor

Patricia Busk

Second Advisor

Caryl Hodges

Third Advisor

Kevin Oh


In 2013, a majority of states in the US had adopted Common Core State Standards under the Race to the Top initiative. With this adoption came the opportunity to utilize computer-delivered and computer-adaptive testing. Although the computer-based assessments were intended to assist teachers in designing classroom assessments and using student data to inform instructional practice, teacher-reported data indicated that the areas in which teachers are most unprepared, lack confidence, or are in need of development were assessment (DeLuca, 2012; Wayman et al., 2007) and technology (Brush & Saye, 2009; Kramarski & Michalsky, 2010).

The Technology Assessment Practices Survey (TAPS) study was developed based on research in assessment literacy and in the technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. The purpose for developing this mixed-method study was the need to understand better how technology-using teachers assess student learning with technology. Two primary research questions facilitated a description of the assessment literacy and use of technology by 84 technology-using teachers. Participants in the study represented a diverse population of self-identified technology-using teachers. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to provide insight into how technology-using teachers use technology to assess student learning. These data were analyzed for fitness with the TPACK theoretical model of teacher knowledge in order to fill an identified gap in the TPACK research (Cox & Graham, 2010).

The TAPS study shows that technology-using teachers who belong to professional-education organizations have higher levels of confidence in both assessment and technology. Quantitative and qualitative data collected in the study also provides insight into the ways in which technology-using teachers think about, design, implement, and use the results of assessments in the classroom. Technology-using teachers exemplify TPACK, including attention to context at the macro, meso, and micro levels (Abbitt, 2011; Doering et al., 2009; Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2005, 2006; Porras-Hernandez & Salinas-Amescua, 2013; Voogt et al., 2012). Future qualitative and quantitative research is needed into how preservice and inservice teachers use technology to assess student learning. Stakeholders in national, state, and local educational institutions need to consider how they are supporting the successful use of technology to assess student learning.