Date of Graduation

Summer 8-11-2023

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Nursing and Health Professions

First Advisor

Dr. Marissa Kraynak


This paper focuses on the factors contributing to high maternal mortality rates in Pakistan, emphasizing the crucial role of inadequate antenatal care (ANC) and limited access to quality health services. Prominent risk factors include poverty and financial constraints, healthcare workforce shortages, lack of women empowerment, and low socioeconomic conditions. The cultural and traditional context in Pakistan also plays an influential role in shaping these factors. For a substantial reduction in maternal mortality rates among Pakistani women and girls, a shift within the cultural perception of women's health, specifically regarding ANC, is crucial. To effectively reduce maternal mortality rates in the country, it proposes three strategic, multifaceted intervention approaches. The first approach calls for community-based interventions that offer incentives like voucher schemes to encourage mothers to attend ANC checkups, thereby enhancing the accessibility and affordability of vital healthcare services. The second approach advocates for a task-shifting process, where tasks usually conducted by highly trained health workers are redistributed to less-trained workers, amplifying the community's capacity to deliver ANC services. Lastly, the model suggests the adoption of Performance-Based Financing, where health facilities are incentivized based on performance metrics related to ANC, promoting a culture of quality care and positive health outcomes. Through this comprehensive strategy, the paper presents a pathway to revitalize Pakistan's healthcare workforce, expand the scope of maternal health services, increase ANC-seeking behaviors, and consequently decrease maternal mortality rates.