Date of Graduation

Fall 12-16-2022

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Science in Environmental Management (MSEM)


College of Arts and Sciences


Environmental Management

First Advisor

Amalia Kokkinaki, Ph.D


Due to projections of rising temperatures and increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events, the rate at which climate change is impacting nations is devastating. However, developing countries and vulnerable communities are not the primary contributors to climate change, but they are at a greater risk for climate impacts by industrialized nations. As a result of increased human activity, developing nations such as El Salvador are particularly susceptible to climate-related events. Deforestation, water pollution, and human health risks are some activities that have contributed to El Salvador's vulnerability to climate change, drastically affecting rural communities suffering from multidimensional poverty. Gender, housing, health impacts, education, and income are some of the determinants of multidimensional poverty. These factors define the physical, social, and environmental susceptibility of communities and the nation to climate change's effects. Agriculture is the primary source of income for the rural population, but it is also one of the primary contributors to the country's greenhouse gas emissions and water pollution, increasing the environmental risks affecting rural populations. This paper assessed the overall vulnerability of El Salvador and its communities by analyzing agricultural management methods, ecosystem exposure and physical, social, and environmental vulnerability to climate impacts. Based on the research findings, the implementation of alternative agricultural practices, the incorporation of educational programs for community engagement, the expansion of conservation and restoration of mangrove ecosystems, and an analysis of alternative housing locations for vulnerable communities to further augment adaptive capacity.