This paper explains a type of knowledge-supported design thinking related to systems in organizations. It shows how work system theory (WST) provides the basis for the work system method (WSM), various versions of which have been used by many hundreds of MBA and Executive MBA students. Design thinking occurs throughout WSM and is especially prominent at the point where WST/WSM users apply their analysis and develop recommendations for improving an existing work system or creating a new work system. Knowledge support for that design thinking has been provided through the knowledge built into WSM, and can be provided in a more complete form through extensions of WST/WSM that include a series of design spaces based on knowledge about work systems and also a work system metamodel that expands on ideas in the core of WST. In contrast to systems analysis and design methods for IT professionals, this approach to design thinking for systems in organizations is equally applicable regardless of whether IT plays an important role.
Steven Alter. "Knowledge-Supported Design Thinking about Systems in Organizations: An Application of Work System Theory" DTBIS 2014: Workshop on Design Thinking in Business Information Systems, June 8, 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel (2014): 1-20.