The study objective was to evaluate changes in prevalence of command hallucinations to harm self or others, characteristics and intensity of auditory hallucinations, and levels of anxiety and depression after attendance at a 10-session course teaching behavioral strategies for managing persistent auditory hallucinations to adult outpatients with schizophrenia. Prevalence of command hallucinations to harm self or others was measured at baseline, end of course, and 1-year post-course. Pre-course scores on the Characteristics of Auditory Hallucinations Questionnaire, Unpleasant Voices Scale, tension-anxiety subscale of Profile of Mood States, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were compared with scores immediately post-course and 1 year later. The prevalence rate of command hallucinations to harm self of 44% at baseline decreased to 24% immediately after attending the 10-session course and remained at 24% 1-year post-course. The prevalence rate for command hallucinations to harm others of 21% at baseline decreased to 16% at end of course and 17% 1-year post-course. People who attended the course perceived it as helpful, and improvement was seen in all seven characteristics of auditory hallucinations, intensity of auditory hallucinations, and anxiety and depression immediately after the course and 1-year post-course.
Buccheri R., Trygstad L., Dowling G.(2007). Behavioral Management of Command Hallucinations to Harm in Schizophrenia. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 45(9) 46-54.