This paper uses work system theory (WST) and two of its extensions to provide an integrated perspective on engineering enterprises for emergent change. This paper starts by explaining six basic assumptions and distinctions related to emergent change. It introduces four frameworks or models related to WST including the work system framework, work system life cycle model, a theory of workarounds, and a work system metamodel. It shows how each framework or model can help in identifying different aspects of engineering for emergent change and also can be the basis of guidelines for that purpose. Overall, this paper provides a unique way to think about the engineering of enterprises. In addition, it explains a combination of concepts and frameworks that provide a path toward engineering for emergent change.
Alter, S. 2014. "Engineering Enterprises for Emergent Change," Working Paper, University of San Francisco, 2014.