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In March 2000, Proposition 21 enacted two revisions to the California Penal Code that dramatically altered the identification and punishment of fringe-offenders. First, a defendant need not be a member to be charged as an active participant in a gang. Second, and most importantly, Proposition 21 enacted a conspiracy law allowing gang participants to be charged as co-conspirators for any crime a fellow gang member commits. Under this newly created conspiracy theory, a juvenile may now be sentenced for a gang-related crime in which he did not participate.