We present a detailed high-resolution weak-lensing study of SPT-CL J2106-5844 at z = 1.132, claimed to be the most massive system discovered at z > 1 in the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel'dovich survey. Based on the deep imaging data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that the cluster mass distribution is asymmetric, composed of a main clump and a subclump ~640 kpc west thereof. The central clump is further resolved into two smaller northwestern and southeastern substructures separated by ~150 kpc. We show that this rather complex mass distribution is more consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution than a unimodal distribution as previously presented. The northwestern substructure coincides with the brightest cluster galaxy and the X-ray peak while the southeastern one agrees with the location of the peak in number density. These morphological features and the comparison with the X-ray emission suggest that the cluster might be a merging system. We estimate the virial mass of the cluster to be , where the second error bar is the systematic uncertainty. Our result confirms that the cluster SPT-CL J2106-5844 is indeed the most massive cluster at z > 1 known to date. We demonstrate the robustness of this mass estimate by performing a number of tests with different assumptions on the centroids, mass–concentration relations, and sample variance.
Kim, Jinhyub; Jee, M. James; Perlmutter, Saul; Hayden, Brian; Rubin, David; Huang, Xiaosheng; Aldering, Greg; and Ko, Jongwan, "Precise Mass Determination of SPT-CL J2106-5844, the Most Massive Cluster at z > 1" (2019). Physics and Astronomy. 76.