Document Type


Publication Date



Background: Mobile technologies allow students the opportunity to enhance learning while away from the traditional classroom setting. However, educational outcome research is lacking in the use of mobile health (m-health) applications in healthcare professional practice development.

Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to discover whether male and female urinary catheter insertion videos delivered via iPods increases students’ skills competency and self-confidence levels.

Methods: A prospective replicated study including second year, semester two, undergraduate nursing student participants (NSP) (N=16) was conducted: nine control participants (no video iPods) and seven intervention participants (video iPods). Nursing students attending a mandatory skills class in a learning resource center (LRC) in a School of Nursing located in Northern California were asked to participate in the study. NSP completed a questionnaire regarding previous clinical exposure to urinary catheterizations and levels of competency and confidence in performing the skills prior to taking a required skills course. Directly following the completion of the questionnaire, the participants’ viewed a professional video and a clinical faculty demonstrating the skills. Thereafter the NSP were provided practice time with evaluative feedback. At the completion of the class, the intervention group was provided video iPods and the control group was afforded no technology for a period of two weeks. Following the two weeks, the NSP completed a follow-up questionnaire and a clinical evaluation of their urinary catheterization skills in the LRC.

Results: Close to zero variation in urinary catheterization competency scores were determined because all of the NSP scored high in this area and, therefore meaningful comparisons were not determined. The confidence levels for performing the catheterization skills did not significantly change by group, procedure, or time and neither were the two-way interactions between group and time, nor between procedure and time significant.

Conclusions: Video iPods may be used to enhance nursing skills. However, the results of this pilot study do not suggest a significant change in competency or confidence levels in performing the clinical skills. Further investigation is necessary because increasing the number of participants, video-viewing time, and monitoring the length of time-on-learning may have a positive influence on future student affect and learning outcomes.


This article is published in Journal of Nursing Education and Practice Vol 1 No 1 (2011), 32-41.

Included in

Nursing Commons