Chemical analyses of prehistoric rock paints from the Lower Pecos Region of southwestern Texas were undertaken using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. This technique allowed us to measure the chemical composition of the paint pigments with minimal interference from a natural rock coating that completely covers the ancient paints. We also analyzed samples representing potential sources of paint pigments, including iron-rich sandstones and quartzite from the study area and ten ochre samples from Arizona. Cluster analysis, principle component analysis and bivariate plots were used to compare the chemical compositions of the paint and pigment sources. The results indicate that limonite extracted from the sandstone was the most likely source for some of the pigments, while ochre was probably used as well.
Russ, Jon; Bu, Kaixuan; Hamrick, Jeff; and Cizdziel, James V., "Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Lower Pecos Rock Paints and Possible Pigment Sources" (2012). Master of Science in Analytics (MSAN) Faculty Research. 5.