Date of Graduation

Spring 5-20-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


School of Nursing and Health Professions




Family Nurse Practitioner

First Advisor

Jo Loomis

Second Advisor

Jodi Sandhu


Background Problem

Clinicians’ attitudes, beliefs and perceptions resulted in unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions in 61.1% of visits for ARTIs in emergency departments (ED) (Donnelly et al., 2014). Literature shows that toolkits offer a cost-effective compilation of evidence base tools and resources that can be individually or holistically adopted to address a specific issue.

Methods & Interventions

In this Doctorate in Nursing Practice (DNP) project, the MITIGATE Toolkit (Multifaceted Intervention to Improve Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Infections for Adults & Children in the Emergency Department and Urgent Care Setting) was featured as a 60-minute online continuing education (CE) module on outpatient antibiotic stewardship for family nurse practitioner (FNP) alumni and students at the University of San Francisco (USF).


Respondents correctly identified at least three clinician resources on antibiotic prescribing; three patient resources on antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship tracking and audit tools. Respondents agreed that displaying commitment posters in patient areas and implementing mandatory staff training are interventions for antibiotic stewardship (ASP).


The implementation of this online training on ASP increased participants’ confidence in using tools and resources that enable adherence to antibiotic guidelines.

Keywords: Antibiotic prescribing, outpatient setting, antibiotic stewardship toolkit, antibiotic resistance