Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


School of Education


Learning and Instruction


Learning & Instruction EdD

First Advisor

Mohammad Popal

Second Advisor

Kevin Oh

Third Advisor

Mathew Mitchell


In the modern higher educational system, technology permeated almost all the provisions of educational processes and transformed individual learning transactions. Empirical evidence reveals students’ skill gaps in the digitized campus and the real-world work environment driven by technology. Technical training is of high value and in high demand in helping students to develop the skills necessary to carry out schoolwork and be prepared for the real-world work environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the combined method of Andragogy and Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) in enhancing learning results and optimizing students’ learning experience in an asynchronous Excel training program designed on Storyline 360. This study utilized a mixed-method design and was conducted in a private religiously affiliated university on the west coast of the U.S. Quantitative data (i.e., control group n=22; Treatment group n=22) were collected through quiz and survey to measure learning results and learning motivation, autonomy, and satisfaction respectively. Qualitative data (n=4) were collected through semi-structured individual interviews to obtain a deeper insight into the different learning experiences between conventional instruction and the Andragogy and CTML-enhanced instruction. The first finding of this study was the effectiveness of the interventional training designed with a combined method of Andragogy and CTML in improving students’ learning outcomes in the post-test (i.e., t (42) = 2.65, p-value = 0.01<0.05, Cohen’s D = 0.80)) and maximizing gained scores (i.e., (t (42) = 2.23, p-value = 0.03), Cohen’s D = 0.67). iii The second finding of the research was that the interventional training designed with a combined method of Andragogy and CTML had a significant effect on improving students’ learning motivation (t (42) = 2.71, p-value = 0.0096 < 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.82,), but no effect on improving learning autonomy (t (42) = -0.17, p-value = 0.87 > 0.05, Cohen’s d = -0.05,) and learning satisfaction (t (42) = 1.43 p-value = 0.16 > 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.42). The third finding of this research revealed: (1) learners found both the conventional and the Andragogy and CTML-enhanced training beneficial as it met their current or future needs; (2) learners in both groups were engaged in the micro-learning experience multimedia-based (i.e., simulations and mind maps); (3) Project-based assessment and brief course navigation instructions are preferred in the self-paced training. This study formulated an evidence-based framework to design effective online technical capability-building solutions that are centered on the needs of learners. Educational leaders should enable instructional technologies and define governance and processes to support the integration of the combined andragogy and CTML method. Additional research implementing the andragogy and CTML approach with learners in different educational settings and subject matters would further expand the findings and drive teaching innovations.