Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


School of Education


Learning and Instruction


Learning & Instruction EdD

First Advisor

Patricia Busk

Second Advisor

Xornam Apedoe

Third Advisor

Sedique Popal


The study investigated the relationship between a metacognitive-listening strategy and listening proficiency and gained insights into students’ perceptions of listening-strategy use among Korean-as-a-foreign-language learners in an intensive-language setting in Northern California. Little research has been carried out in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) setting, and investigation in a different context of an intensive-language program is needed where good study habits, such as metacognitive strategy, self-regulation, and autonomous learning are required. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between metacognitive-listening-strategy use and listening proficiency outcomes by more- and less-proficient students among KFL adult learners and their perception of metacognitive-listening-strategies.

To achieve the goal of the study, a mixed-method design with a descriptive quantitative and a qualitative interview approach was carried out using the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) and the Listening-In-Course-Proficiency Test (LPROFT). The MALQ served as an instrument to gauge participants’ metacognitive-listening-awareness and perceived metacognitive-strategy use and the LPROFT measured participants’ listening proficiency outcomes. Participants (n=61) were divided into two proficiency groups for a quantitative component based on participants’ accumulated grade point average scores. For a qualitative component, five students from each group (n=10) participated in interviews and were questioned about perceptions and beliefs regarding listening strategies to identify any differences between the groups.

The results show the most and least-used strategies from both groups are almost identical, and the problem-solving subscale was the top strategy both groups used, whereas the personal knowledge subscale was the least used. The correlation coefficient between the questionnaire and the proficiency test is positive and small for the more-proficient learners but negative and small for the less-proficient learners, which results in a close to zero correlation for all learners. The interview data revealed the differences between the two groups regarding metacognitive-listening-strategy use.

The findings of the study suggest customized one-on-one strategy training for less-proficient listeners to implement metacognitive-listening strategies. The teacher’s role was emphasized to gauge students’ needs and their level of appropriate listening practice. Further research needs to investigate developments of metacognitive-strategy use among less-proficient listeners, cultural aspects regarding metacognitive strategy, and effects of other language experiences on metacognitive-listening strategy.