Date of Graduation

Spring 5-18-2018

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Science in Environmental Management (MSEM)

First Advisor

Allison Luengen, Ph.D


Pollinators are responsible for 67 to 98% of flowering plant reproduction while 90% of all plants are flowering. This does not change in urban environments and focusing on habitat restoration in cities is important for the conservation of species. This paper focuses on urban habitat restoration in San Francisco for three species: Callophrys viridis, Icaricia icarioides missionensis, and Bombus californicus. These three species are all native of San Francisco and are all threatened by loss of habitat within the city. The problems these species face in urban environments, as well as the successes and failures of other habitat conservation programs, can help conservationists better design projects to improve native pollinator population. The organizations planning these restoration projects need to understand how the species interact with the environment. Bombus californicus requires ground-nesting habitat while Icaricia icarioides missionensis requires three lupine species for larval feeding. As seen with New York City’s sidewalk gardens and the success of I. icarioides missionensis population restoration on San Bruno Mountain, having a combination of scientific, community, government, and non-for-profit interest helps restoration projects become a success. C. viridis only has community and non-for-profit interest in the form of Nature in the City while B. californicus has some scientific interest, but little else. To ensure that these species, as well as others are properly conserved, the City of San Francisco must get involved with planning efforts, especially when it comes to caring for parks. It is also important that non-for-profits and community involvement be encouraged in the form of citizen science and smaller gardens and sidewalk gardens to create pollinator networks. By having this level of involvement, the city of San Francisco can become a haven for native pollinators.