Date of Graduation

Summer 8-16-2022

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Nursing and Health Professions

First Advisor

Zahra Goliaei

Second Advisor

Zahra Goliaei

Third Advisor

Zahra Goliaei


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as one of the leading public health threats of the 21st century (Naghavi, 2022). AMR occurs due to an evolution of bacteria, making treatments of bacterial infections less effective (Naghavi, 2022). In recent years, several publications began identifying a linkage between antibiotic use in agriculture to humans. Roughly 70% of all antibiotics in the United States are being used in animal feed (Cable, 2018). More than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistance infections occur in the United States every year- which results in roughly 35,000 deaths (CDC, 2019). A comprehensive analysis estimated nearly 1.27 million deaths globally were attributed to AMR- surpassing HIV and Malaria mortality rate totals (Naghavi, 2022). Over the past decade, antimicrobial resistance has steadily increased despite the first recording of resistant bacteria in 1942 (Lowy, 2003). Reducing antibiotic use to slow the spread of resistant bacteria was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers of Disease Control (CDC). Extensive literature exists on the healthcare costs of AMR (Dadgostar, 2019), and varying strains of resistant bacteria (Lowy, 2003) but there is not enough information on policies to regulate and control the AMR. This paper conducts a multidisciplinary approach to identify possible policies in addressing the pathways that AMR transmit to humans, through agricultural practices. This project explores the existing levels of policies and considered current policies as a tool to redefine the agricultural system over time, while also labeling factors that recognize current policies are part of the institutional problem.

Included in

Public Health Commons