Date of Graduation

Fall 12-16-2021

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Science in Environmental Management (MSEM)


College of Arts and Sciences


Environmental Management

First Advisor

Allison Luengen


California’s Executive Order N-79-20 requires all new cars and passenger trucks sold in California to be zero-emissions by 2035. Electric vehicles (EVs) are the primary alternative fuel solution. However, there are widespread barriers to ownership, particularly for those in lower socioeconomic classes. A literature review of barriers to EV ownership shows the primary barrier is insufficient overnight charging infrastructure. Geospatial data of EV charging infrastructure and 2020 census tract data were used to map average income versus EV charging infrastructure in San Francisco. Data maps confirm the literature review findings: there is a positive correlation between income and EV charging infrastructure. Next, a comparative analysis of three groupings of neighboring San Francisco districts found districts with higher median household income were likely to have a higher concentration of EV charging infrastructure than districts with lower median household income. Discovered equity concerns were addressed using the Just Transition framework to assess how the City of San Francisco can develop an EV charging infrastructure that is beneficial to all San Francisco residents, regardless of income. Finally, five recommendations were developed to increase equity in the transition to an all electric fleet in San Francisco: 1) Develop curbside parking policy and infrastructure in neighborhoods that use residential street parking permits; 2) Equip existing street lights with public EV chargers; 3) Create City EV charger support or incentives for low-income residents; 4) Develop infrastructure grants for outdated apartment buildings with parking garages; and 5) Invest in Participatory Action Research in San Francisco neighborhoods.