Date of Graduation

Summer 8-13-2021

Document Access

Project/Capstone - Global access

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Nursing and Health Professions

First Advisor

Jovita Murillo

Second Advisor

Dory Escobar


As new and emerging infectious diseases surface, public health officials are working harder to close the immunization gap. Every year, thousands of adults in the U.S suffer adverse health outcomes and die from vaccine-preventable diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has reminded us of the power of vaccines as they have been able to eradicate diseases, save lives, and create healthier communities. A literature review was conducted to identify the gaps in research as it relates to vaccine disparities among racial/ethnic adult populations.

The literature indicates that ethnic/racial minorities are at disproportionate risk for vaccine-preventable diseases and data has shown increasingly high levels of vaccination disparities among these groups. In order to address the gaps in vaccination disparities among ethnic/racial minority groups, targeted interventions addressing individual and community needs are needed using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework.

Additional interventions are needed to increase strong provider/family/friend recommendation, enhance individual and community vaccine education and knowledge of health risks, eliminate barriers by enhancing accessibility and affordability, and placing great emphasis on the role and influence that community leaders/workers have in vaccination promotion. These practices can contribute to community trust, knowledge, and better health outcomes.

Keywords: vaccination, vaccination disparities, vaccination rates, vaccine inequity, racial/ethnic disparities, vaccine uptake, immunization coverage, racial/ethnic minorities, health disparities, U.S minorities