Ghostwriting is a common practice in a variety of professional and artistic endeavors but is only acceptable when the audience expects it. In academia, ghostwriting student essays is considered dishonest among faculty, but not all students agree since some of them do employ ghostwriters. In this article, we examine how international students perceive ghostwriting by interviewing ghostwriters and students who have used those services. We ultimately argue that a liberal arts education requires that students behave ethically, which excludes ghostwriters.
Zheng, Shulun, and Jie Cheng. "Academic Ghostwriting and International Students." Young Scholars in Writing 12 (2015): 124-133.