Previous research suggests that time orientation differs as a function of national culture. National cultures often cluster together by region, thus regional generalizations can provide insights on how cultures in a given cluster perceive time. We consider the unique case of bi-cultural New Zealand with two cultures, the European New Zealanders (Pākehā) and the indigenous Māori from historically contrasting temporal clusters: Anglo-American and South Pacific. To demonstrate the ways in which Pākehā and Māori differ in their perspectives on time orientation we take our analysis beyond the basic generalizations based on regional clusters and consider the cultural roots of Māori time perceptions. Specifically we consider differences between these two cultures along the theoretical dimensions of clock vs. event time, punctuality, and past/present/future orientations. With respect to Māori culture, we argue that sociocentricity, including different conceptualizations of self, and a unique historical perspective form the basis for the discernible differences between Pākehā and Māori in terms of time perspectives. The endurance of these different perceptions of time, despite over 160 years of Māori and Pākehā social and cultural integration, testify to the centrality of time orientation as a fundamental cultural value. Managerial implications of understanding these cross-cultural differences in time orientation for both domestic and international business are discussed.
Kevin D. Lo, Carla Houkamau. Exploring the Cultural Origins of Differences in Time Orientation between European New Zealanders and Māori. NZJHRM. 2012 Spring. 12(3),105-123.