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Pakistan has a fairly short history of just over 50 years, becoming independent from British colonial rule in 1947. It shares a much older history with India; however their recent relationship has been turbulent because of disputes over the territory of Kashmir. Despite this, the country has made some economic progress. The education system, however, has not reflected this progress. This is obvious not only in the overall educational indicators, but also in the education of women. Because of religious and cultural practices, women have not been involved in mainstream activities outside of home life. This essay traces the historical background of the feminist movement among Muslims in India, which influenced the women of Pakistan, a nation created for the Muslim majority of India. This is followed by a brief background of higher education in Pakistan, concluding with recommendations about the need for women to become influential in the system, to effect change in the education system by encouraging the 120 Listening to the Voices involvement of women in positions of authority and policy-making in higher education. The inspiration for this essay, “A Bit of Advice” by Shakir, a Pakistani female poet, refers to the silence of women of Pakistan in higher education due to the lack of opportunities available to them and the need for their inclusion in the dialogue for change.
Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Education
Rana, Anniqua (2016). Listen to This Silence: Women in Higher Education in Pakistan. In Betty Taylor (Ed.), Listening to the Voices: Mutli- ethnic Women in Education (pp 119 - 128). San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco.