Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved numerous strategies for evading host immune defenses, including piracy of cellular cytokines. A viral homolog of interleukin-10, designated cmvIL-10, binds to the cellular IL-10 receptor and effects potent immune suppression. The signaling pathways employed by cmvIL-10 were investigated, and the classic IL-10R/JAK1/Stat3 pathway was found to be activated in monocytes. However, inhibition of JAK1 had little effect on cmvIL-10-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway had a more significant impact on TNF-α levels but did not completely relieve the immune suppression, demonstrating that cmvIL-10 stimulates multiple signaling pathways to modulate cell function.
Spencer JV. The cytomegalovirus homolog of interleukin-10 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity for inhibition of cytokine synthesis in monocytes. J Virol. 2007 Feb;81(4):2083-6.